The Impact of Stakeholder Power on a Centralised Sustainable Tourism Planning Approach: A Case Study of EST Information Transfer in Fayoum, Egypt
The availability and accessibility of scientific and technical information to support environmentally-sound technology (EST) transfer has been a tenet of United Nations (UN) sustainable development policy and programmes since the 1992 Earth Summit. This paper uses sustainable tourism planning in Egypt as a vehicle for exploring the impact of tourism stakeholders on the transfer of EST information from the centralised tourism planning function to local community-led tourism initiatives. What becomes clear is that this transfer is the product of a complex mix of structures and interactions associated with a process of environmental strategy formulation and implementation and that driving this complexity is the multifarious nature of multiple stakeholder groupings, each with its own strengths, motivations, interests and priorities. In terms of the process of strategy formulation, this is not particularly unusual. However, where official structures and channels break down for whatever reason, perceptions of stakeholder attributes of power, legitimacy, and urgency will work to redefine and realign those structures to meet the needs of the dominant grouping. Stakeholder theory will be used to investigate how tourism industry bodies to use their power and local representation to compensate for these fragmented channels and how the redefined structures may impact upon the realisation of sustainable tourism plans.
Keywords: Sustainable Tourism, Stakeholders, Environmentally Sound Technology, Planning Approaches, Communication Channels, Strategy
Mr Mike Snelgrove
Senior Lecturer, Welsh School of Hospitality, Tourism & Leisure Management, University of Wales Institute, Cardiff
Prof. Eleri Jones
Head of School, Welsh School of Hospitality, Tourism & Leisure Management, University of Wales Institute, Cardiff